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Tuesday, October 1, 2019

Short history of reservations in India: Reason, Constitution and Supreme Court Judgements

Reason behind reservations: 
In India, caste system is prevalent and lower castes are denied access to education and employment in Govt (Rajodyogi) for thousands of years. They were not allowed to own personal property as well, and remained a slave class for all these years. Hence, to undo this injustice, reservations were introduced.

History of reservations in India:
1881 - Jyotiba Phule demands for reservation in his statement to Hunter Commission on Education
1902 - Chatrapati Sahu Maharaj introduces reservations in Govt (Princely state of Kolhapur). He started schools for downtrodden.

1909 Indian Council Act - Seperate Communal Electorates to Muslims in Minto-Morley reforms (Muslim Members will be elected by muslim voters alone). Communal electorates are like today teacher constituencies in MLC elections.

1919 - Communal electorates extended to Sikhs, Anglo-indians, and Europeans

1932 – After round table conferences, The Communal Award was made by the British prime minister Ramsay MacDonald on 16 August 1932 granting separate electorates in India for the Forward CasteScheduled CasteMuslimsBuddhistsSikhsIndian ChristiansAnglo-IndiansEuropeans and Depressed Classes (now known as the Scheduled Caste) etc. The principle of weightage was also applied.

1932 Sep, 24 – Poona Pact – Certain seats were reserved in general electorate to Depressed Classes, in place of communal electorates.

1950, Jan 26: Constitution of India grants reservation under Art. 15 and Art. 16( in public employment) and Art 46. Reservation in educational institutions in provided under Art. 15 and Art. 46.

1950? Champakam Dorai Vs State of Madras Case: Supreme Court held that reservations are against Art. 14- Right to Equality.
Subsequently, Constitution 1st amendment was made to Art. 14.
1963 Balaji Vs State of Mysore case : Supreme Court states that sub-categorization as Backward and Most-Backward is not warranted under Art. 15(4). States that maximum reservation that can be allowed is 50%.
1973 – Keshavananda Bharati Case – Supreme Court defines basic structure of constitution. SC can review any decision (including amending constitution) of Govt if it is violative of basic structure.
1778 – Janata Govt Appoints second OBC commission i.e. B.P. Mandal Commission.
1990 – Govt accepts Mandal Commn report and issues Office Memorandum to implement 27% reservation for OBCs in Govt jobs and Public Sector Undertakings.
1991 – Govt issues O.M. to implement 10% reservation to Economically Backward classes.
1990: Indira Sawhaney Case(Mandal Judgement): 9 member bench
Supreme Court strikes down reservations on basis of economic backwardness; Reservations can’t exceed 50%; the ‘creamy layer’ of OBCs to be excluded from reservations.
1993: Govt issues O.M. setting creamy layer criteria, reserving 27% of jobs in central Govt to OBCs.
2006: Constitutional amendment to give reservation to SEBCs in Educational Institutions. Art. 15 amended.
2019, Jan: 103rd Constitutional amendment giving 10% reservation to Economically Backward Sections except those who are already covered under reservation(i.e. SC/ST/SEBCs-Socially and Educationally Backward Classes.)


3. Creamy layer in OBC - 
http://ncbc.nic.in/Writereaddata/Report%20on%20Income%20Criteria%20for%20Creamy%20Layer%20-Pandey635817940067450735.pdf

http://ncbc.nic.in/Writereaddata/Supplementary%20Creamy%20Layer%20Report%20241115%20final%20at%20430PM%20Corrected%20by%2005052016%20page%20no15635980433155122719.pdf

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Popular books in Telugu and English

The books in Telugu are available in Vishalandhra/Navachetana /Emesco/Hyderabad Book Trust/ Prajashakthi/ Samanthara(Lakdikapool, Hyd) bookshops. Some soft copies are available at http://www.arvindguptatoys.com/.

1. Science -

Physics
Nitya Jeevitamlo Bowthika Shastram - Yakov Perelman - (Vishalandhra, Hyd)

Adbhutha Shakthi Viduttu - Seetarama Shastry (Sahiti publication, Vijayawada)

Chemistry

Biology
Microbe Hunters (Sukshmacrimi Anveshakulu - Vishalandhra)
Choppadantu prashnalu - by Mahidhara Nalinimohan

2. Mathematics

Fun with Figures - Yakov Perelman (Sajeeva Ganitham)
How to Solve it - George Polya
Medaduku Padunu by Mahidhara Nalinimohan

3. Social
Sapiens by Yuval Noah Harari

4. Religion(Theism and Atheism)

Mahabharath, Ramayan and Bhagavatam - By Rajaji/RK Narayanan

Story of Muhammed by Edith Holland(English/Telugu)

5. Philosophy

Vishwa Darshanam, by Nanduri Ramamohan Rao

Gulamgiri(Slavery) by Mahatma Jyothiba Phule

6. Biographies

Dr Ambedkar by Dhananjay Kheer

Mahatma Jothiba Phule by Dhananjay Kheer

7. Business

Zero to One - Peter Theil

Think and grow rich by Napoleon Hill

Edureetha (Dheerubhai Ambani) by A.G. Krishnamurthy(Mudra Ad Agency)

Fountain Head by Ayn Rand ( A novel)

8. Story books

9. Novels

Godfather by Mario Puzo


10. Personality Development

7 habits of highly effective people by Stephen Covey(Telugu/English)

Saturday, August 3, 2019

Study tips to students(6th to 12th classes)


Study tips to students(6th to 12th classes)
Learning is about curiosity to know, trying to understand and unearth the truth and trying to explain things in reasonable manner. The following tips will make your learning(and thus studies) more enjoyable. Once you enjoy your studies, you’ll not forget it and get good marks in exams.
1.     Mathematics: Read theory part to understand concept, understand solved problems and then go to exercise. If you understand concept well, you will appreciate the equations and problem solving process.
Eg. How distance between two points is calculated using Pythagoras theorem, how to calculate volume of a solid by dipping it in liquid and measuring change in the volume of liquid etc.
Such understanding will help you in IITJEE, NEET exams.
2.     Science: Science will be interesting if you know the following things associated with a topic-
a. Historic context – how a particular idea was discovered/invented. What was the problem it solved.
Eg. Invention of X-rays by Rontgen. Invention of pensilin(an anti-biotic) by Alexander Fleming.
b. Interesting stories associated with inventions. H. Pylori bacteria causing gastritis. Dr Marshall drank it and fell sick, and later proved antibiotics work effectively for gastritis.
Impact of the invention: How invention of Diesel Engine(Internal Combustion Engine) changed the fate of oil rich nations(Gulf).
c. Conceptual understanding- atomic structure etc.
d. Seeing is believing – Magnetic lines of force can be seen using a bar magnet, a paper and iron filings. You can try experimenting, working models(electric motor) and hacks. Google/Youtube will help.
e. Application in day to day life – Vitamins and minerals and their uses, diseases due to deficiency of micro nutrients etc.
3. Social studies
Most of the tips given in science help here. This is inter-disciplinary, for example you should try to understand history of polity(Rules and their administration, evolution of various ideas on Govt), history of economy(trade, it’s spread, silk route, foreign relations etc.), history of society, etc. In geography, you should appreciate importance of monsoons for agriculture, importance of trade winds for trade, landscape and human settlements near banks of rivers, natural resources and their role in economy, environment protection, pollution etc. (more of a science).
Observing the society around us, identifying problems(like poverty, etc.) and trying to find solutions will make social an interesting subject.

How to study smart?
There are few techniques to spend your energies wisely and gain maximum knowledge in minimum time, given below.
1.     3RWT – Read, Re-read, Recite, Revise, Write and Teach.
Read Govt books for clarity.
Teach for mastery.
2.     Memory tips- if learning is fun, you won’t forget it. Read to entertain yourself, you’ll never forget it.
A.   Mnemonics:
My very educated mother just served us nine pizzas/puris.
SMART Governance – Simple, moral, accountable/answerable, Responsive/Responsible, Transparent
VIBGYOR - Order of colours in rainbow.
B.   Weaving vivid stories, to remember words.
C.   Innovate- Flowcharts, mind maps, diagrams, maps.
D.   Rhyming – lal, bal, pal for Extremist leaders of congress(1905 to 1920).
Angela Merkel(Angel Miracle), Vice Chancellor of Germany.
E.    Summary on finger tips
Indian Freedom Struggle(1600- Europeans arrive in India, 1857- Sepoy Mutiny, 1885- INC (Congress) and beginning of moderate phase, 1905-Extremist Phase, 1915, 1920- Non Cooperation Movement, 1930 - Civil Disobedience, 1942- Quit India, 1947- )
Polity(Preamble, Fundamental Rights, DPSP, FD, Division of Powers b/w centre and states, Separation of Powers[legislature, executive, judiciary] etc.)
F.    Own ideas – 1909 Minto Marley, 1919 – Montagu Chemsford reforms)
G. Understanding the meaning of the word: pseudopodium,  pseudo in latin means false, podium means foot; Similarly, in electronics if you understand the meaning of avalanche, you will understand the concept of avalanche diode well.
H. Read with sense of purpose- For eg. if you are reading about nutrition, vitamins and minerals, think how can you help your brother/sister/mother maintain good health by taking green vegetables/ground-nut and Jaggery(Bellam)/Mutton to overcome anemia(less red blood cells[hemoglobin] leading to weakness) etc. 
     There are more chances of you remembering if you read with sense of purpose.
Excelling in examinations
Your talent is known to evaluator only by what you write and how you present it.
Career
1.     Govt Jobs –
Tech.(DRDO, ISRO, PSUs like SAIL, ONGC etc.
General.(Civils – GS based, Defence/Banks/CAT- logical reasoning, English, Quantitative aptitude tests.)
2.     Private Entrepreneurship/Employment – a. Professionals – Engineers, MBAs, Doctor, Advocate, Charted Accountant.